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Preface. A. Handbook of Experimental Design. 1. Historical remarks. 1.1 The diet experiment of the prophet Daniel. 1.2 The lemon experiment of an Egyptian judge. 1.3 Drug research in the 11th century. 1.4 John Stuart Mill and the foundations of experimental research. 1.5 Wilhelm Wundt and the experiment in psychology. 1.6 The invention of randomization. 1.7 Sir Ronald Fisher and randomization. Summary. Questions. 2. The object of experimental design. 2.1 Dependent and independent variables. 2.2 Selection of factor levels. 2.3 Causal relations and intervening variables. 2.4 Ockham's razor. 2.5 Constructs. 2.6 Causal and correlative relations. Summary. Questions. 3. A case for experimental design. 3.1 Threats to statistical conclusion validity. 3.1.1 Low statistical power. 3.1.2 Violated assumptions of statistical tests. 3.1.3 Multiple tests. 3.1.4 Reliability of the dependent variables. 3.1.5 Reliability of the independent variables. 3.1.6 Random disturbance of the experimental situation. 3.1.7 Random differences between subjects. 3.2 Threats to internal validity. 3.2.1 History. 3.2.2 Maturation 3.2.3 Testing. 3.2.4 Instrumentation 3.2.5 Statistical regression. 3.2.6 Selection. 3.2.7 Experimental mortality. 3.2.8 Direction of the causal conclusion. 3.2.9 Exchange of information. 3.3 Threats to construct validity. 3.3.1 Inexact definitions of constructs. 3.3.2 Mono-operation bias. 3.3.3 Mono-method bias. 3.3.4 Hypothesis guessing. 3.3.5 Social desirability responding. 3.3.6 Experimenter expectancies. 3.3.7 Clever Hans and his friends. 3.3.8 Omitting relevant levels of constructs. 3.3.9 Effects of more than one independent variable. 3.3.10 Interaction of testing and treatment. 3.3.11 Restricted generalizability over the constructs. 3.4 Threats to external validity. 3.4.1 Interaction between selection and treatment. 3.4.2 Interaction between setting and treatment. 3.4.3 Interaction between history and treatment. Summary. Questions. 4. Control of ext