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자료유형 : 단행본
서명 / 저자 : Wind Energy Essentials : Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts / Richard Walker, Andrew Swift
개인저자 : Walker, Richard P. | Swift, A. H. P. |
발행사항 : Hoboken, New Jersey : Wiley, 2015
형태사항 : xiv, 490p. : ill ; 25cm.
서지주기 : Includes bibliographical references and index
주제명 : Wind power plants
Wind energy
ISBN : 9781118877890
청구기호 : TK1541 W739w
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Preface xiii

Foreword xv

About the Authors xvii

Dedication and Acknowledgments xix

1 Impacts of Energy and Electricity on Society 1

1.1 What are “Social and Environmental Impacts”? 1

1.2 Early Wind Power Innovation and Discovery 2

1.3 Impact of Electricity on Society 20

1.4 History of Wind Energy for Electricity Production 28

1.5 Renewables and Electrification in Third World Countries 32

1.6 The Nexus of Wind, Water, and Electricity 32

References 32

2 The Basics of Electricity 34

2.1 Units of Electrical Measurement 34

2.2 Descriptions of Common Electrical Equipment 36

2.3 Types of Companies or Business Units within the Electric Industry 39

2.4 Frequently Asked Questions 40

Reference 47

3 Overview of Wind Energy and Other Sources of Electricity 48

3.1 Defining Renewable Energy 48

3.2 Sources and Uses of Energy 51

3.3 Growth of Renewable Energy in the United States 53

3.4 Use of Renewable Energy for Electricity Production in the United States 53

3.5 Growth of Wind Power Capacity in the United States 58

3.6 Subsidies or Incentives for Wind Energy 59

3.7 Potential for Increased Use of Wind Energy in the United States 60

3.8 Wind Resources in the United States 62

3.9 Overview of Other Sources of Electric Generation in the United States 67

References 70

4 Conversion of Power in the Wind to Electricity 71

4.1 Wind Power Plants and Wind Turbines 71

4.2 Atmospheric Science 85

4.3 Wind Statistics 94

5 The Wind Energy Development Process 100

5.1 Requirements for an Economically Viable Wind Energy Project 100

5.2 Other Factors that Contribute to the Success of a Wind Energy Project 103

5.3 Potential “Fatal Flaws” 104

5.4 Coordination of the Wind Energy Project Development Process 105

5.5 Timeline for Developing a Wind Energy Project 106

5.6 Major Steps in the Early Stage Wind Project Development Process 107

5.7 Major Steps in Latter Stage Wind Energy Project Development 111

5.8 Final Steps in Developing a Wind Energy Project 113

5.9 Conclusions 114

References 114

6 Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy 115

6.1 The Need to Understand and Respond 115

6.2 Community Relationships and Public Outreach 117

6.3 General Categorization of Issues 119

Reference 121

7 Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges 122

7.1 Overview of Wildlife-Related Issues Faced by the Wind Industry 122

7.2 State and Federal Regulations Relevant to Wind Development’s Impact on Wildlife 123

7.3 USFWS Guidelines for Wind Development 124

7.4 Best Management Practices for Wind Energy Development Included as Chapter 7 of the USFWS Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines 125

7.5 Bird Deaths Due to Collisions with Wind Turbine Blades 128

7.6 Wind Generation Wildlife Issues Not Limited to Avian Collisions 131

7.7 Avian Species of Concern 133

7.8 Bat Deaths due to Wind Energy Development 136

7.9 Organizations Studying Ways to Minimize Effects of Wind Development on Birds and Other Wildlife 140

7.10 Conclusions 141

References 141

8 Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues 145

8.1 Overview of Environmental and Ecological Impacts on Humans 145

8.2 Wind Turbine Noise: Key Terms 146

8.3 Estimates of Noise from Wind Turbines 147

8.4 Potential Health Effects of Audible or Subaudible Noise from Wind Turbines 149

8.5 Noise Ordinances 150

8.6 Technological Advances that can Reduce Turbine Noise 151

8.7 Siting Procedures for Noise Mitigation 152

8.8 Shadow Flicker 153

8.9 Mitigation of Shadow Flicker 154

8.10 Electric and Magnetic Fields 155

8.11 Mitigating EMF Exposure from Wind Projects 156

8.12 Solid and Hazardous Wastes 156

8.13 Mitigation of Solid and Hazardous Waste Issues 157

8.14 Conclusions 158

References 158

9 Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues 160

9.1 Overview of Workforce and Public Safety Issues 160

9.2 Things Can Go Wrong Anytime Humans are Involved (in any Industry) 161

9.3 Ice Shedding 161

9.4 Mitigating Ice Shedding Issues 163

9.5 Blade Throw 163

9.6 Mitigating Blade Throw Issues 164

9.7 Risk of Fire 164

9.8 Mitigating Risk of Fire 165

9.9 Lightning 165

9.10 Other Weather Emergencies: Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Hail 167

9.11 The Impact of Wind Energy on Vehicular Traffic 167

9.12 Planning for and Addressing Transportation Issues 168

9.13 Electrical and Pipeline Safety: Height, Depth, and Location of Electric Lines 171

9.14 Other Wind Energy Industry Workforce Safety Issues 171

9.15 Conclusions 174

References 174

10 Wind Energy’s Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications 175

10.1 Impact of Wind Energy on Military and Civilian Aviation 175

10.2 Regulatory Requirements and FAA Permitting Process 176

10.3 FAA Screening Tools 177

10.4 FAA Requirements for Marking or Lighting of Obstructions 181

10.5 Marking and/or Lighting of Meteorological Towers 184

10.6 Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on Aviation or Navigation Radar 185

10.7 Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on Weather Radar 189

10.8 Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on Telecommunications 190

References 192

11 Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration 194

11.1 Aesthetic Issues: Wind Energy’s Impact on Scenery or Viewshed 194

11.2 Mitigating Aesthetic Impacts and Issues 202

11.3 Impact of Wind Energy on Cultural Resources 202

11.4 Compatibility of Wind Energy Development with Existing Land Use 204

11.5 Impact of Wind Energy Development on Water Resources 213

11.6 Removal of Retired Equipment and Restoration of Property 215

11.7 Best Management Practices for Decommissioning of Wind Energy Projects (from USFWS Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines), 216

References, 217

12 Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid 218

12.1 Overview of Wind Integration Issues, 218

12.2 The Electric Grid, 219

12.3 Wind Penetration, 221

12.4 Issues that Arise due to Integration of Wind Energy, 222

12.5 Capability of Wind Turbines to Meet Applicable Standards for Grid Interconnection, 230

12.6 Conclusions, 232

References, 233

13 N on Wind Renewable Energy Sources Used To Meet Electricity Needs 234

13.1 Comparing Sources of Electric Generation: Attributes That Will Be Considered 234

13.2 Renewable Energy Generation Resources in the United States 235

13.3 Hydroelectric Generation 235

13.4 Solar Energy 238

13.5 Biomass Energy 243

13.6 Municipal Solid Waste 245

13.7 Landfill Gas 246

13.8 Geothermal Energy 248

13.9 Energy from the Ocean: Tidal Power and Wave Power 250

13.10 Hydrogen 253

References 255

14 Nonrenewable Energy Sources Used to Meet Electricity Needs 256

14.1 Comparing Sources of Electric Generation 256

14.2 Processes or Technologies Used to Produce Electricity 257

14.3 Comparing Efficiencies of Generation Technologies 259

14.4 Generation Resources in the United States 261

14.5 Nuclear Energy 261

14.6 Coal-Fired Generation 266

14.7 Natural Gas–Fired Generation 270

14.8 Oil-Fired Generation 273

14.9 Methane Hydrates 274

References 276

15 Energy Efficiency and Conservation: “Less is More” and “Doing Without” 277

15.1 Overview 277

15.2 Concepts 278

15.3 Consumer Efficiency and DSM 283

15.4 Generation and Transmission Efficiency 288

15.5 Conserving Resources and Reducing Emissions 292

15.6 Positive Attributes of Energy Efficiency and Conservation 294

15.7 Limits to Electric Energy Efficiency and Conservation 294

References 297

16 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 298

16.1 Overview 298

16.2 The Greenhouse Effect 298

16.3 Fossil Fuels and their Contribution to GHG Levels 301

16.4 International Political and Economic Issues of Controlling GHG Emissions 306

16.5 Public Opinion and Policy 306

16.6 Potential Effects of Global Climate Change 310

16.7 Methods and Costs of Mitigation 312

16.8 Conclusions 313

References 313

17 Siting and Permitting of Electric Generation Projects 315

17.1 Federal Law, Regulations, and Permitting Requirements 315

17.2 Federal Permits, Approvals, or Consultations 320

17.3 State and Local Permitting 322

17.4 Public Opposition to Power Plants and Transmission Lines 324

17.5 Examples of Renewable Energy Projects Experiencing Difficulty in Obtaining Required Permits or Approvals 325

17.6 Examples of Fossil-Fueled or Nuclear Generation Projects Experiencing Difficulty in Obtaining Required Permits or Approvals 326

17.7 Transmission Line Projects Experiencing Difficulty in Obtaining Required Permits or Approvals 329

17.8 Checklist for Governmental Approvals 330

References 331

18 Economics of Electricity Generation 333

18.1 Sources of Electricity Generation 333

18.2 Electrical Demand versus Supply 334

18.3 Marginal Cost of Electricity/Energy Value 335

18.4 Effect of Generation Resource Diversity on Electricity Market Price 337

18.5 Capacity Value of Electric Generation 339

18.6 Effect of Capacity Factor on the Economics of Electricity Generation 340

18.7 Effect of Expected Useful Life or Economic Life of Power Plants on the Economics of Electricity Generation 342

18.8 Book Depreciation versus Depreciation for Tax Purposes 343

18.9 Ad Valorem or Property Taxes 346

18.10 Federal Support and Subsidies 347

18.11 Environmental Externalities 352

18.12 Using Levelized Cost of Energy to Compare Competing Technologies 353

18.13 Conclusions 355

References 356

19 Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation 357

19.1 Introduction 357

19.2 Potential Economic Benefits of Electric Generation Projects 357

19.3 Potentially Detrimental Economic Impacts of Electric Generation Projects 360

19.4 Tax Abatements or other Incentives to Attract Generation Projects 363

19.5 Summary of Studies Assessing the Economic Impacts of Wind Plants 364

19.6 Studies on Economic Benefits of Non-Wind Electric Generation Projects 369

19.7 Opportunities Created by a Transition to a “Clean Energy Economy” 370

19.8 Conclusions 372

References 372

20 Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy 374

20.1 Offshore Wind Resource Areas in the United States 374

20.2 Economics of Offshore Wind vs. Onshore Wind 378

20.3 Environmental Impacts Unique to Offshore Wind Energy 379

20.4 Potential Impact of Hurricanes 381

References 381

21 State and National Energy Policies 383

21.1 Introduction 383

21.2 History of US Energy Policy 384

21.3 Keys Issues within Energy Policy 387

21.4 Energy Imports 388

21.5 Governmental Mandates, Targets, or Goals 391

21.6 Federal Tax Incentives 393

21.7 Public Benefit Funds 396

21.8 Feed in Tariffs 397

21.9 Net Metering 398

21.10 Research and Development 399

21.11 Increasing Restrictions on Fossil-Fueled Power Plant Emissions 400

21.12 Carbon Taxes/Cap-and-Trade Programs 402

21.13 Conclusions 403

References 404

22 Global Wind Energy Policy and Development 405

22.1 Introduction 405

22.2 Renewable Energy Development—A Global Perspective 405

22.3 The Wind Energy Industry’s Role in the Global Energy Market 407

22.4 Wind Energy by Region 416

22.5 Conclusions 426

References 427

23 Wind Energy Workforce, Education, and Jobs 429

23.1 Historic Growth of the Wind Energy Industry 429

23.2 Sectors and Locations of Jobs within the Wind Energy Industry 429

23.3 Projected Growth of the Wind Energy Industry 438

23.4 Types of Jobs within the Wind Energy Industry 440

References 444

24 The Future of Electric Energy 446

24.1 Supply and Use Projections of Fossil Fuels 446

24.2 Eighty Percent Renewables by 2050 449

24.3 Wind Energy Research and Development 450

24.4 Smart Grid/Infrastructure Updates 450

24.5 The Consumer of the Future/Consumer Applications 452

24.6 Energy Storage 452

24.7 Clean Energy Transportation: The Role for Wind Energy and Other Renewables in Reducing National Dependence on Petroleum Imports 453

24.8 Energy and Clean Water: Using Wind to Desalinate and Purify Water 454

24.9 Electrification in Third ]World Countries 455

References 455

Appendix A Wind Energy Reference Tables for Units, Conversions, Symbols, and Energy Equivalents 457

Appendix B List of Acronyms 464

Appendix C Glossary 468

Index 479

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