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표지이미지
자료유형 : 단행본
서명 / 저자 : District Heating and Cooling / Svend Frederiksen, Sven Werner
개인저자 : Frederiksen, Svend | Werner, Sven |
판사항 : first edition
발행사항 : Poland : Studentlitteratur AB, 2013
형태사항 : 586p. : ill ; 25cm.
서지주기 : Includes bibliographical references and index
번역저록 :
ISBN : 9789144085302
청구기호 : TH7201 F74d
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관련콘텐츠

관계명 연결정보
번역서 지역난방과 지역냉방 실무 / Frederiksen, Svend , 홍릉과학출판사, 2018

부가정보

11
Preface



15
Chapter 1 Introduction


17
Chapter contents



20
Terminology and nomenclature



22
Literature




23
Chapter 2 The fundamental idea of district heating


29
Literature



29
Study questions for Chapter 2




31
Chapter 3 Energy, heat, and cold markets


31
Energy markets



35
Literature



35
Heat markets



38
Cold markets



42
Literature



43
Study questions for Chapter 3




45
Chapter 4 Heat and cold demands


45
Space heating



56
Literature



56
Domestic hot water supply



59
Literature



60
Specific heat use in buildings



62
Literature



63
Industrial heat demands



64
Literature



64
Other heat demands



65
Literature



66
Cold demands



68
Literature



69
Study questions for chapter 4




71
Chapter 5 Heat and cold loads


71
Heat load definition



72
Aggregate heat loads before substations



80
Distribution heat losses



80
Heat loss calculations



85
Temperature drop in the respective directions of flow



85
Annual heat losses



88
Literature



89
Heat and cold loads in distribution networks



91
Aggregate heat loads after heat supply units



91
Seasonal heat load variations



92
Heat load weather dependence



95
Daily heat load variations



98
Heat load composition



99
Short-term heat load forecasting



100
Literature



100
Heat load parameters



100
Diversity



101
Capacity utilisation



109
Design heat load



110
Literature



111
Cold loads



116
Literature



116
Study questions and problems for chapter 5




119
Chapter 6 Heat and cold supply


119
A wide range of possible energy supply sources



128
Boilers and solid fuel combustion



141
Literature



142
Flue gas cleaning and flue gas condensation



142
Flue gas cleaning



145
Boiler efficiency and flue gas condensation



151
Combined flue gas cleaning and condensation



152
Literature



153
Combined heat and power



154
The CHP concept



156
Basic CHP idea illustrated by a gas turbine plant



159
Performance measures



162
Back pressure steam cycle CHP plant



170
High efficiency steam CHP plant



171
Extraction-condensing steam CHP plant



176
Theoretical Carnot cycle CHP plant



178
Combined cycle CHP plant



180
Small-scale CHP plant



190
Normalised P-Q diagram with efficiency measures



191
CHP versus small-scale heat pumps



195
Carbon capture and storage CHP



196
Literature



198
Waste incineration (Waste-to-Energy



202
Literature



203
Heat recycling from industrial processes



210
Literature



210
Polygeneration



212
Literature



212
Geothermal district heating and cooling



212
Overview



213
Size of the geothermal resource



214
Ground source heat pumps, a definition issue



214
Geographical distribution and temperature levels



216
Geothermal district heating technology



218
Geothermal combined heat and power



222
Literature



223
Large-scale ambient cold sources



224
Literature



226
Large heat pumps and chillers



226
Vapour compression heat pumps and chillers



235
Absorption heat pumps and chillers



243
Literature



244
Solar district heating and cooling



248
Literature



249
Nuclear district heating



251
Literature



252
Electric boilers



253
Peak and backup heat generation



257
Literature



258
Heat and cold storage



259
Load shifting



261
Short-time heat storage technology and flowcharts



265
Short-time cold storage technology



268
Literature



268
Study questions and problems for Chapter 6




271
Chapter 7 Environmental impact and opportunities


271
Local and regional air quality



275
Benefits of district cooling



275
Climate change



278
Literature



279
7.4 Environmental opportunities – summing up



280
Study questions and problems for Chapter 7




281
Chapter 8 Heat and cold distribution technology


281
Historical development of heat distribution technology



282
First generation: Steam distribution



287
Second generation: Hot water distribution inside ducts



290
On the way to third-generation heat distribution technology



292
The third generation of heat distribution technology



296
Literature



297
Joints



299
Valves



303
Literature



304
Durability and methods of laying rigid pipes



304
Stress-based design of carrier pipes of rigid, bonded pipe assemblies



308
Solid mechanics of restrained thermal expansion



312
Pipe-laying methods



316
Strain- and fatigue-based design of carrier pipes



322
Literature



323
Insulation foam and jacket pipes



329
Literature



330
Insulation sizing



336
Literature



336
Underground installation of rigid pipes



342
Literature



342
Flexible pipes



348
Literature



348
Overland pipes, pipes in tunnels, and pipes inside houses



349
Literature



350
Number of pipes in parallel



352
Literature



353
Cold carrier distribution



359
Literature



360
Water chemistry



366
Literature



366
Study questions and problems for chapter 8




369
Chapter 9 Substations


369
The substation concept



372
Literature



373
Desired temperature performance



375
Literature



375
Hydraulic separation



379
Examples of detailed layouts



385
Literature



385
Cascading



388
Literature



389
Selection of equipment



389
Heat exchangers



392
Valves and controls



396
Hot water storage tanks



400
Testing the equipment



400
Literature



401
Sizing of equipment



401
Overall considerations



405
Heat exchangers



410
Hot water storage tanks



410
Control valves



413
Literature



414
Adapting hydronic space heating systems



414
Energy saving measures



414
Elimination of recirculation and three-way valves



418
Optimised radiator flow rate and supply temperature



419
Single-pipe hydronic heating systems



420
Literature



421
District cooling substations



427
Literature



427
Metering in substations



440
Literature



441
Study questions and problems for Chapter 9




443
Chapter 10 System functioning


443
Grid structures and maps



443
Heat density



445
Typical growth structures



447
Typical network structures



449
Developed network structure



450
Regional district heating systems



452
Literature



453
Heat and cold distribution



454
Flow distribution



454
Pressure drop



458
Pumping power



459
Pressure head gradients and pressurisation



467
Pressure surges



469
Carrier pipe sizing and choice of flow velocity



473
Literature



475
Temperature levels



481
Literature



482
Heat demand and load control



484
Grid control and four operating modes



487
Central maximum supply temperature control



487
Local minimum supply temperature control at the grid periphery



487
Central and local maximum pressure control



488
Central and local minimum pressure control



488
Four operating modes



490
System responses to altered demand conditions



491
Dynamic load responses



493
Literature



493
Heat supply from multiple sources



496
System monitoring



496
Short term planning



498
System supervision



499
Documentation and analyses



499
Literature



500
Reliability and availability issues



500
Reliability level



502
Operating problems



504
Maintenance



505
Literature



507
Development of system functioning



509
Study questions and problems for Chapter 10




511
Chapter 11 Economics and planning


513
Cash flow based profitability analysis



514
Present value and the Net Present Value decision rule



516
Investment periods and hurdle rates in district heating



517
Profitability in existing operations



518
Valuation of incremental investments



518
Allocation of synergy benefits



524
Literature



525
Heat supply optimisation



530
Literature



531
Distribution costs



536
Literature



537
Extension planning



540
Literature



541
Price models



544
Literature



544
Heat supply costs versus local energy efficiency measures



547
Literature



547
Economy-of-size



548
District cooling



550
Study questions and problems for chapter 11




553
Chapter 12 District heating and cooling development


553
District heating



558
Literature



559
District cooling



564
Literature



565
Future district heating and cooling



566
Structure definition



571
Identification



571
Adaptation



572
Study questions and problems for chapter 12



573
Chapter 13 Organisation



573
Legislation



574
Literature



574
Market rules



577
Literature



578
Ownership



580
Literature



580
Study questions and problems for Chapter 13



581
Chapter 14 Information sources



581
Textbooks



582
Literature



582
Handbooks



583
Literature



583
Journals



585
Conferences



585
Statistics



587
Literature



588
Trade associations



588
Research programs



590
Literature




591
Index

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